Pseudonymization of learner essays as a way to meet GDPR requirements

This blog is based on joint research with Yousuf (Samir) Ali Mohammed, Arild Matsson, Beáta Megyesi and Sandra Derbring Access to language data is an obvious prerequisite for research in digital humanities in general, and for the development of NLP-based tools in particular. However, accessible data becomes a challenging target where personal data is involved. This is very true of language learner data where tasks are often phrased so that they, directly or indirectly, elicit explicit personal information, e.g.”Describe your school” or …

Korp searches in Second Language data

Korp offers a lot of different corpus collections for various types of search (and research). Swedish as a Second Language (L2) is one of the subcategories of the language that can be studied with the help of Korp. At the moment, Korp provides access to five L2 corpora through its interface: ASU – Andraspråksutveckling SpIn – texts from the centrum for Språkintroduktion SW1203 – texts from a preparatory course for university students SweLL – Swedish Learner Language – adult-written essays from a …

Common Pitfalls in the Development of ICALL Applications

This blog is a piece of opinion where I sketch the process of developing NLP-based applications for second language learning and look at the process from the point of view of typical (mis)conceptions and challenges, as I have experienced them. Are we over-trusting the potential of NLP? Are teachers by definition reluctant to use NLP-based solutions in classrooms? How, if at all, can academic universities ensure sustainability of the developed applications? 1 Introduction Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Language Technology (LT) deal …

A multilingual annotated corpus of world’s natural language descriptions

Shafqat Mumtaz Virk, Harald Hammarström, Markus Forsberg, Søren Wichmann The diversity of 7000 languages of the world represents an irreplaceable and abundant resource for understanding the unique communication system of our species (Evans and Levinson, 2009). All comparison and analysis of languages departs from language descriptions — publications that contain facts about particular languages. The typical examples of this genre are grammars and dictionaries (Hammarström and Nordhoff, 2011). Until recently, language descriptions were available in paper form only, with indexes as the …

Analyzing data from the Swedish Parliament

The Swedish Parliament (Riksdagen) continuously releases open data on its website, which includes documents approved and used during parliamentary sessions as well as what each member of parliament votes during each roll call (voting session). This data can be used to gain insight on what topics members of parliament and parties discuss and vote. In the following post, I will provide some example analyses that were performed with Python, but it could be done similarly with many other programming languages with data …

What are probing tasks in NLP?

In recent years, neural network based approaches (i.e. deep learning) have been the main models for state-of-the-art systems in natural language processing, whether that is in machine translation, natural language inference, language modeling or sentiment analysis. At the same time researchers have asked themselves what kind of linguistic information these neural networks are able to capture. Answering this question is not a trivial undertaking: state-of-the-art model’s are usually multiple layers deep with non-linear transformations learned through billions of mathematical operations. The benchmarks …

Using Språkbanken corpora in NLTK

At Språkbanken we collect resources, mainly lexica and corpora, most of them in Swedish. So far we have collected Swedish corpora totalling 13 billions of words, in all kinds of genres and from all time periods. Most of our corpora are not manually annotated, and the ones that are annotated usually have only one kind of annotation (e.g., part of speech, lemmas, dependency structures, constituent structure, etc). To be able to use the same tools to analyse any corpus, we have devised …

Vad är en tsunami för slags våg egentligen?

Ordet tsunami var helt okänt för de flesta i Sverige före julhelgen 2004. Då inträffade ju det som så småningom kom att kallas tsunamikatastrofen, en förfärlig naturkatastrof som skördade otaliga dödsoffer i Sydasien och Sydostasien. Det är klart att en tsunami är en sorts våg, men vilken sorts våg handlar det om? Hur talade man om detta naturfenomen på svenska före 2004? I fackkretsar – bland seismologer, etc. – har man förstås länge känt till ordet tsunami, men även i allmänspråket dyker …