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	title        = {Proceedings of SLPAT-2011: 2nd Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies},
	abstract     = {We are pleased to bring you these Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies (SLPAT), held in Edinburgh, Scotland on 30 July, 2011. We received 19 paper submissions, of which 9 were chosen for oral presentation and another 6 for poster presentation – all 15 papers are included in this volume. In addition, five demo proposals were accepted, and short abstracts of these demos are also included here.

This workshop was intended to bring researchers from all areas of speech and language technology with a common interest in making everyday life more accessible for people with physical, cognitive, sensory, emotional or developmental disabilities. This workshop builds on the first such workshop (co-located with NAACL HLT 2010); it provides an opportunity for individuals from research communities, and the individuals with whom they are working, to share research findings, and to discuss present and future challenges and the potential for collaboration and progress.

While Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is a particularly apt application area for speech and Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies, we purposefully made the scope of the workshop broad enough to include assistive technologies (AT) as a whole, even those falling outside of AAC. While we encouraged work that validates methods with human experimental trials, we also accepted work on basic-level innovations and philosophy, inspired by AT/AAC related problems. Thus we have aimed at broad inclusivity, which is also manifest in the diversity of our Program Committee. 

We are very excited to have four invited speakers. Sylvia Grant, Darryal Stark and Greg McMurchie will speak on their experiences and perspectives as users of AAC technology. Norman Alm will chair this expert panel and facilitate discussion between the panel and workshop participants. Norman has a wealth of research experience in applying NLP technologies to AAC and we look forward to a truly interactive and informative session. We would like to thank all four speakers for taking the time to participate and provide their collective insight to the workshop.

We would also like to thank the members of the Program Committee for completing their reviews promptly, and for providing useful feedback for deciding on the program and preparing the final versions of the papers. Thanks also to Marie Candito, Bonnie Webber and Miles Osborne for assistance with logistics and to Brian Roark for his guidance and support. Finally, thanks to the authors of the papers, for submitting such interesting and diverse work, and to the presenters of demos and commercial exhibitions.
	author       = {Fried-Oken, Melanie and Ljunglöf, Peter and McCoy, Kathleen and Waller, Annalu},
	year         = {2011},
	publisher    = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
	address      = {Stroudsburg, PA},
	ISBN         = {978-1-937284-14-5},

	title        = {Lekbot: A talking and playing robot for children with disabilities},
	abstract     = {This paper describes an ongoing project where we develop and 
evaluate a setup involving a communication board and a toy robot, 
which can communicate with each other via synthesized speech. The 
purpose is to provide children with communicative disabilities 
with a toy that is fun and easy to use together with peers, with 
and without disabilities. When the child selects a symbol on the 
communication board, the board speaks and the robot responds. 
This encourages the child to use language and learn to cooperate 
to reach a common goal. Throughout the project, three children 
with cerebral palsy and their peers use the robot and provide 
feedback for further development. The multimodal interaction with 
the robot is video recorded and analyzed together with 
observational data in activity diaries.
	booktitle    = {SLPAT'11: 2nd Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies},
	author       = {Ljunglöf, Peter and Berman, Alexander and Claesson, Britt and Ericsson, Stina and Kronlid, Fredrik and Müller, Ingrid Mattsson and Ottesjö, Cajsa},
	year         = {2011},

	title        = {Editing Syntax Trees on the Surface},
	abstract     = {We describe a system for interactive modification of syntax trees by intuitive editing operations on the surface string. The system has a graphical interface, where the user can move, replace, add, and in other ways modify, words or phrases. During editing, the sentence is kept grammatical, by automatically rearranging words and changing inflection, if necessary. This is accomplished by combining constraints on syntax trees with a distance measure between trees.},
	booktitle    = {Nodalida'11: 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics},
	author       = {Ljunglöf, Peter},
	year         = {2011},

	title        = {A Bilingual Treebank for the FraCaS Test Suite},
	abstract     = {We have created a bilingual treebank for 99% of the sentences in the FraCaS test suite. The treebank is built together with an associated bilingual English-Swedish lexicon written in the Grammatical Framework Resource Grammar. The original FraCaS sentences are English, and we have tested the multilinguality of the Resource Grammar by analysing the grammaticality and naturalness of the Swedish translations. 86% of the sentences are grammatically and semantically correct and sound natural. About 10% can probably be fixed by adding new lexical items or grammatical rules, and only a small amount are considered to be difficult to cure.
	author       = {Ljunglöf, Peter and Siverbo, Magdalena},
	year         = {2011},

	title        = {GRASP: Grammatikbaerad språkinlärning},
	booktitle    = {Presentation at the ISAAC Nordic Research Conference, 24 May 2011, Gothenburg},
	author       = {Ljunglöf, Peter},
	year         = {2011},

	title        = {How to edit syntax trees on the surface},
	booktitle    = {Presentation at the LOCI Workshop II: Type Dependency, Type Theory with Records, and Natural-Language Flexibility, 16-17 June 2011, London},
	author       = {Ljunglöf, Peter},
	year         = {2011},