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BibTeX

@inProceedings{Pilán-Ildikó2017-289884,
	title        = {Lärka: an online platform where language learning meets natural language processing},
	booktitle    = {7th ISCA Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education, 25-26 August 2017, Stockholm, Sweden},
	author       = {Pilán, Ildikó and Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2017},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2016-246348,
	title        = {Hybrid Language Segmentation for Historical Documents},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings CLiC-it 2016 and EVALITA 2016, Napoli, Italy, December 5-7, 2016. Edited by : Pierpaolo Basile, Anna Corazza, Franco Cutugno, Simonetta Montemagni, Malvina Nissim, Viviana Patti, Giovanni Semeraro, Rachele Sprugnoli},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Bizzoni, Yuri},
	year         = {2016},
}

@misc{Alfter-David2019-285613,
	title        = {Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Computer Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL 2019), September 30, Turku Finland},
	abstract     = {The workshop series on Natural Language Processing (NLP) for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL) is a meeting place for researchers working on the integration of Natural Language Processing and Speech Technologies in CALL systems and exploring the theoretical and methodological issues arising in this connection. The latter includes, among others, insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research, on the one hand, and promote development of “Computational SLA” through setting up Second Language research infrastructure(s), on the other.

The intersection of Natural Language Processing (or Language Technology / Computational Linguistics) and Speech Technology with Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) brings “understanding” of language to CALL tools, thus making CALL intelligent. This fact has given the name for this area of research – Intelligent CALL, ICALL. As the definition suggests, apart from having excellent knowledge of Natural Language Processing and/or Speech Technology, ICALL researchers need good insights into second language acquisition theories and practices, as well as knowledge of second language pedagogy and didactics. This workshop invites therefore a wide range of ICALL-relevant research, including studies where NLP-enriched tools are used for testing SLA and pedagogical theories, and vice versa, where SLA theories, pedagogical practices or empirical data are modeled in ICALL tools.

The NLP4CALL workshop series is aimed at bringing together competences from these areas for sharing experiences and brainstorming around the future of the field.
},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena and Borin, Lars and Pilán, Ildikó and Lange, Herbert},
	year         = {2019},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet},
	address      = {Linköping},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7929-998-9},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2019-285728,
	title        = {From river to bank: The importance of sense-based graded word lists},
	booktitle    = { EUROCALL 2019 - CALL and Complexity, Book of Abstracts, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 28-31 August 2019},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2019},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2019-285625,
	title        = {LEGATO: A flexible lexicographic annotation tool.},
	abstract     = {This article is a report from an ongoing project aiming at analyzing lexical and grammatical competences of Swedish as a Second language (L2). To facilitate lexical analysis, we need access to metalinguistic information about relevant vocabulary that L2 learners can use and understand. The focus of the current article is on the lexical annotation of the vocabulary scope for a range of lexicographical aspects, such as morphological analysis, valency, types of multi-word units, etc. We perform parts of the analysis automatically, and other parts manually. The rationale behind this is that where there is no possibility to add information automatically, manual effort needs to be added. To facilitate the latter, a tool LEGATO has been designed, implemented and currently put to active testing.},
	booktitle    = {Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, No. 167, NEAL Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), September 30-October 2, Turku, Finland Editor(s): Mareike Hartman and Barbara Plank},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Lindström Tiedemann, Therese and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2019},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press},
	address      = {Linköping university},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7929-995-8},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2019-285731,
	title        = {Interconnecting lexical resources and word alignment: How do learners get on with particle verbs?},
	abstract     = {In this paper, we present a prototype for an online exercise aimed at learners of English and Swedish that serves multiple purposes. The exercise allows learners of the aforementioned languages to train their knowledge of particle verbs receiving clues from the exercise application. The user themselves decide which clue to receive and pay in virtual currency for each, which provides us with valuable information about the utility of the clues that we provide as well as the learners willingness to trade virtual currency versus accuracy of their choice. As resources, we use list with annotated levels from the proficiency scale defined by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and a multilingual corpus with syntactic dependency relations and word annotation for all language pairs. From the latter resource, we extract translation equivalents for particle verb construction together with a list of parallel corpus examples that can be used as clues in the exercise.},
	booktitle    = {Linköping Electronic Conference Proceeding, No. 167, NEAL Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), September 30-October 2, Turku, Finland / Editor(s): Mareike Hartman and Barbara Plank},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Graën, Johannes},
	year         = {2019},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet},
	address      = {Linköping university},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7929-995-8},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2019-281344,
	title        = {Lärka: From Language Learning Platform to Infrastructure for Research on Language Learning},
	abstract     = {Lärka is an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) platform developed at Språkbanken, as a flexible and a valuable source of additional learning material (e.g. via corpusbased exercises) and a support tool for both teachers and L2 learners of Swedish and students of (Swedish) linguistics. Nowadays, Lärka is being adapted into a building block in an emerging second language research infrastructure within a larger context of the text-based research infrastructure developed by the national Swedish Language bank, Språkbanken, and SWE-CLARIN. Lärka has recently received a new responsive user interface adapted to different devices with different screen sizes. Moreover, the system has also been augmented with new functionalities. These recent additions aim at improving the usability and the usefulness of the platform for pedagogical purposes. The most important development, though, is the adaptation of the platform to serve as a component in an e-infrastructure supporting research on language learning and multilingualism. Thanks to Lärka’s service-oriented architecture, most functionalities are also available as web services which can be easily re-used by other applications.},
	booktitle    = {Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Borin, Lars and Pilán, Ildikó and Lindström Tiedemann, Therese and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2019},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Press},
	address      = {Linköping},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7685-034-3},
}

@article{Agebjörn-Anders2019-281196,
	title        = {Review of Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages},
	journal      = {Linguist List},
	author       = {Agebjörn, Anders and Alfter, David},
	year         = {2019},
	number       = { Jan 16},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2018-275362,
	title        = {Is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? A corpus-based pilot study of the lexical complexity in multi-word expressions.},
	abstract     = {Multi-word expressions (MWE) are assumed to be good predictors of language learner proficiency, however, there are no methods to establish at which level which MWEs can be assumed to be known. In this study we look at whether the target (proficiency) level of MWEs can be calculated based on the known level of its constituents.},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of SLTC 2018, Stockholm, October 7-9, 2018},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2018},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2018-275368,
	title        = {Towards Single Word Lexical Complexity Prediction.},
	abstract     = {In this paper we present work-in-progress where we investigate the usefulness of previously created word lists to the task of single-word lexical complexity analysis and prediction of the complexity level for learners of Swedish as a second language. The word lists used map each word to a single CEFR level, and the task consists of predicting CEFR levels for unseen words. In contrast to previous work on word-level lexical complexity, we experiment with topics as additional features and show that linking words to topics significantly increases accuracy of classification.},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 5, 2018},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2018},
	publisher    = {Association of Computational Linguistics},
	address      = {Stroudsburg, PA },
	ISBN         = {978-1-948087-11-7},
}

@misc{Pilán-Ildikó2018-275358,
	title        = {Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL 2018), SLTC, Stockholm, 7th November 2018 },
	abstract     = {The primary goal of the workshop series on Natural Language Processing for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL) is to create a meeting place for researchers working on the integration of Natural Language Processing and Speech Technologies in CALL systems and exploring the theoretical and methodological issues arising in this connection. The latter includes, among others, insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research, on the one hand, and promoting the development of “Computational SLA” through setting up Second Language research infrastructure(s), on the other.

The intersection of Natural Language Processing (or Language Technology / Computational Linguistics) and Speech Technology with Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) brings “understanding” of language to CALL tools, thus making CALL intelligent. This fact has given the name for this area of research – Intelligent CALL, ICALL. As the definition suggests, apart from having excellent knowledge of Natural Language Processing and/or Speech Technology, ICALL researchers need good insights into second language acquisition theories and practices, as well as knowledge of second language pedagogy and didactics. This workshop invites therefore a wide range of ICALL-relevant research, including studies where NLP-enriched tools are used for testing SLA and pedagogical theories, and vice versa, where SLA theories, pedagogical practices or empirical data are modeled in ICALL tools. The NLP4CALL workshop series is aimed at bringing together competencies from these areas for sharing experiences and brainstorming around the future of the field.},
	author       = {Pilán, Ildikó and Volodina, Elena and Alfter, David and Borin, Lars},
	year         = {2018},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press},
	address      = {Linköpings universitet},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7685-173-9},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2018-276407,
	title        = {SB@ GU at the Complex Word Identification 2018 Shared Task},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 5, 2018},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Pilán, Ildikó},
	year         = {2018},
	publisher    = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
	address      = {Stroudsburg, PA, USA},
	ISBN         = {978-1-948087-11-7},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2018-275364,
	title        = {From Language Learning Platform to Infrastructure for Research on Language Learning},
	abstract     = {Lärka is an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) platform developed at Språkbanken, as a flexible and a valuable source of additional learning material (e.g. via corpus- based exercises) and a support tool for both teachers and L2 learners of Swedish and students of (Swedish) linguistics. Nowadays, Lärka is being adapted into a central building block in an emerging second language research infrastructure within a larger context of the text-based research infrastructure developed by the national Swedish Language bank, Språkbanken, and SWE-CLARIN.},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of CLARIN-2018 conference, Pisa, Italy},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Borin, Lars and Pilán, Ildikó and Lindström Tiedemann,  Therese  and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2018},
}

@article{Alfter-David2017-253359,
	title        = {Review of Developing, Modelling and Assessing Second Languages},
	journal      = {Linguistlist},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Agebjörn, Anders},
	year         = {2017},
}

@inProceedings{Volodina-Elena2016-246346,
	title        = {Classification of Swedish learner essays by CEFR levels},
	abstract     = {The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment  of  Swedish  second  language  (L2)  learner  essays  from  two  points  of  view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the  Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR level. We describe the data and resources that our experiments were based on, provide a short introduction to the algorithm for essay classification and experiment results, present the user interface we developed for testing new essays and outline future work. },
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of EuroCALL 2016. 24-27th August 2016, Cyprus.},
	author       = {Volodina, Elena and Pilán, Ildikó and Alfter, David},
	year         = {2016},
	publisher    = {Research-publishing.net},
	ISBN         = { 978-1-908416-44-5},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2016-246347,
	title        = {Modeling Individual Learner Knowledge in a Computer Assisted Language Learning System},
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of the Sixth Swedish Language Technology Conference. Umeå University, 17-18 November, 2016},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2016},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2016-241664,
	title        = {Learning the Learner: User Modeling in Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning Systems},
	booktitle    = {CEUR Workshop Proceedings, v.1618. UMAP 2016 Extended Proceedings. Halifax, Canada, July 13-16, 2016. Edited by : Federica Cena, Michel Desmarais, Darina Dicheva, Jie Zhang},
	author       = {Alfter, David},
	year         = {2016},
}

@inProceedings{Pilán-Ildikó2016-246349,
	title        = {Coursebook texts as a helping hand for classifying linguistic complexity in language learners' writings},
	abstract     = {We bring together knowledge from two different types of language learning data, texts learners read and texts they write, to improve linguistic complexity classification in the latter. Linguistic complexity in the foreign and second language learning context can be expressed in terms of proficiency levels.  We show that incorporating features capturing lexical complexity information from reading passages can boost significantly the machine learning based classification of learner-written texts into proficiency levels.  With an F1 score of .8 our system rivals state-of-the-art results reported for other languages for this task.  Finally, we present a freely available web-based tool for proficiency level classification and lexical complexity visualization for both learner writings and reading texts. },
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of the workshop on Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity},
	author       = {Pilán, Ildikó and Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2016},
	ISBN         = {978-4-87974-709-9},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2016-246345,
	title        = {From Distributions to Labels: A Lexical Proficiency Analysis using Learner Corpora},
	abstract     = {In this work we look at how information from second language learner essay corpora can be used for the evaluation of unseen learner essays. Using a corpus of learner essays which have been graded by well-trained human assessors using the CEFR scale, we extract a list of word distributions over CEFR levels. For the analysis of unseen essays, we want to map each word to a so-called target CEFR level using this word list. However, the task of mapping from a distribution to a single label is not trivial. We are also investigating how we can evaluate the mapping from distribution to label. We show that the distributional profile of words from the essays, informed with the essays’ levels, consistently overlaps with our frequency-based method, in the sense that words holding the same level of proficiency as predicted by our mapping tend to cluster together in a semantic space. In the absence of a gold standard, this information can be useful to see how often a word is associated with the same level in two different models. Also, in this case we have a similarity measure that can show which words are more central to a given level and which words are more peripheral.
},
	booktitle    = {Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Bizzoni, Yuri and Agebjörn, Anders and Volodina, Elena and Pilán, Ildikó},
	year         = {2016},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7685-633-8},
}

@misc{Alfter-David2020-300071,
	title        = {Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Computer Assisted Language Learning 2020},
	abstract     = {The workshop series on Natural Language Processing (NLP) for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL) is a meeting place for researchers working on the integration of Natural Language Processing and Speech Technologies in CALL systems and exploring the theoretical and methodological issues arising in this connection. The latter includes, among others, the integration of insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research, and the promotion of “Computational SLA” through setting up Second Language research infrastructures.
This collection presents four selected papers describing use of Language Technology for language learning.},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena and Pilán, Ildikó and Lange, Herbert and Borin, Lars},
	year         = {2020},
	publisher    = {Linköping University Electronic Press},
	address      = {Linköping},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7929-732-9},
}

@inProceedings{Alfter-David2020-300074,
	title        = {Expert judgments versus crowdsourcing in ordering multi-word expressions},
	abstract     = {In  this  study  we  investigate  to  which  degree  experts  and  non-experts  agree  on questions  of  linguistic  complexity  in  a  crowdsourcing  experiment.  We  ask  non-experts (second language learners of Swedish) and two groups of experts (teachers of Swedish as a second/foreign language and CEFR experts) to rank multi-word expressions  in  a  crowdsourcing  experiment. We  find  that  the  resulting  rankings by all the three tested groups correlate to a very high degree, which suggests that judgments  produced  in  a  comparative  setting  are  not  influenced  by  professional insights into Swedish as a second language.  },
	booktitle    = {Proceedings of the Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), 25–27 November 2020, (Online)},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Lindström Tiedemann, Therese and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2020},
}

@book{Alfter-David2021-304548,
	title        = {Exploring natural language processing for single-word and multi-word lexical complexity from a second language learner perspective},
	abstract     = {In this thesis, we investigate how natural language processing (NLP) tools and techniques can be applied to vocabulary aimed at second language learners of Swedish in order to classify vocabulary items into different proficiency levels suitable for learners of different levels.  

In the first part, we use feature-engineering to represent words as vectors and feed these vectors into machine learning algorithms in order to (1) learn CEFR labels from the input data and (2) predict the CEFR level of unseen words.
Our experiments corroborate the finding that feature-based classification models using 'traditional' machine learning still outperform deep learning architectures in the task of deciding how complex a word is. 

In the second part, we use crowdsourcing as a technique to generate ranked lists of multi-word expressions using both experts and non-experts (i.e. language learners). Our experiment shows that non-expert and expert rankings are highly correlated, suggesting that non-expert intuition can be seen as on-par with expert knowledge, at least in the chosen experimental configuration.

The main practical output of this research comes in two forms: prototypes and resources. We have implemented various prototype applications for (1) the automatic prediction of words based on the feature-engineering machine learning method, (2) language learning applications using graded word lists, and (3) an annotation tool for the manual annotation of expressions across a variety of linguistic factors.},
	author       = {Alfter, David},
	year         = {2021},
	publisher    = {Göteborgs universitet},
	ISBN         = {978-91-87850-79-0},
}

@book{Alfter-David2021-311727,
	title        = {Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Computer Assisted Language Learning (NLP4CALL 2021)},
	abstract     = {The workshop series on Natural Language Processing (NLP) for Computer-Assisted Language
Learning (NLP4CALL) is a meeting place for researchers working on the integration of Natural
Language Processing and Speech Technologies in CALL systems and exploring the theoretical and
methodological issues arising in this connection. The latter includes, among others, the integration of
insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research, and the promotion of “Computational
SLA” through setting up Second Language research infrastructures.},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Volodina, Elena and Pilán , Ildikó  and Graën, Johannes and Borin, Lars},
	year         = {2021},
	publisher    = {Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 177},
	address      = {Linköping, Sweden},
	ISBN         = {978-91-7929-625-4},
}

@article{Alfter-David2021-311721,
	title        = {Crowdsourcing Relative Rankings of Multi-Word Expressions: Experts versus Non-Experts},
	abstract     = {In this study we investigate to which degree experts and non-experts agree on questions of difficulty in a crowdsourcing experiment. We ask non-experts (second language learners of Swedish) and two groups of experts (teachers of Swedish as a second/foreign language and CEFR experts) to rank multi-word expressions in a crowdsourcing experiment. We find that the resulting rankings by all the three tested groups correlate to a very high degree, which suggests that judgments produced in a comparative setting are not influenced by professional insights into Swedish as a second language.},
	journal      = {Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT)},
	author       = {Alfter, David and Lindström Tiedemann, Therese  and Volodina, Elena},
	year         = {2021},
	volume       = {1},
}