En svensk utvärderingsmängd för koreferens och könsbias.
|I. IDENTIFYING INFORMATION|
|Subtitle||A Swedish diagnostic set for gender bias in coreference resolution models|
|Created by*||Yvonne Adesam (email@example.com), Gerlof Bouma (gerlof.bouma)|
|Link(s) / permanent identifier(s)*||https://spraakbanken.gu.se/en/resources/swewinogender|
|License(s)*||CC BY 4.0|
|Abstract*||The SweWinogender test set is diagnostic dataset to measure gender bias in coreference resolution. It is modelled after the English Winogender benchmark, and is released with reference statistics on the distribution of men and women between occupations and the association between gender and occupation in modern corpus material.|
|Funded by*||Vinnova (dnr 2020-02523); Språkbanken Text|
|Related datasets||Part of the SuperLim collection (https://spraakbanken.gu.se/en/resources/superlim)
Based upon/partially translated from Winogender Schemas 
|Key applications||Diagnose gender bias in coreference resolution systems|
|Intended task(s)/usage(s)||(1) Resolve pronouns by identifying antecedent
(2) Compare system predictions between pronoun types (masc/fem/neutral)
(3) Compare system predictions with auxiliary statistics on gender and occupation
|Recommended evaluation measures||(1) Accuracy
(2) “Gender parity”: pairwise prediction agreement masc-fem, masc-neutral, fem-neutral items; and three-way prediction agreement. See .
(3) Correlation (Spearman’s rho); plotting/visual inspection. See .
|Recommended split(s)||Test data only|
|Dataset in numbers*||624 test items, from 104 templates|
|Nature of the content*||The test items are constructed from short discourse templates that contain two participants: one referred to by occupation, and one either by some role description, or as “någon” (somebody). Furthermore, the templates contain a pronominal reference to one of these participants. The templates are constructed such that the interpretation of the pronoun follows from (common sense) reasoning. Each template gives rise to 6 test items: 2 depending on which description is chosen for the second participant, and 3 depending on whether the feminine (“hon/henne/hennes”), masculine (“han/honom/hans”) or gender-neutral pronoun (“hen/hens”) is used. Note that the intended interpretation is the same for each of these 6 realizations. A pronoun resolution system that does not display any bias regarding gender and occupation should therefore resolve these 6 variants (and in particular the 3 variants that differ wrt the choice of pronoun) in exactly the same way.
The test set is accompanied by an auxiliary dataset that contains two sets of statistics on the association between occupation and gender for the occupations mentioned in the test set. These statistics were extracted from a real-world database and from a corpus, respectively. The auxiliary data can be used to study gender-occupation biases in the system more directly.
|Format*||Test items: JSON Lines, with 1 test item per line. Test items sentences are given as strings, pronouns and candidate antecedents combinations of strings and string indices. Indices start at 0, and refer to the NFKC-normalized unicode string. Metadata included for each item is intended for analysis, not for use by the pronoun resolution system.
Auxiliary data: TSV file with one occupation per row. Gives the following columns of information: 1) occupation; 2) % female practitioners according to SCB; (3)–(5) % occurences in female-associated contexts using small/medium/large collocate sets. See  for an explanation of the different corpus measures.
|Data source(s)*||The test items are loose translations and/or inspired by the Winogender Schemes of .
The auxiliary data was collected by the first authors of , in the context of an MA course. The real-world statistics on gender and occupation were compiled on the basis of Statistics Sweden/SCB’s open data (CC BY 4.0). Where occupations do not map 1-1 to SCB’s categorization scheme, the supplied statistics are averages over several relevant categories. See  for details. The corpus-based statistics on gender-association of occupations where compiled from the Swedish Culturomics Gigaword Corpus .
|Data collection method(s)*||See |
|Data selection and filtering*||See |
|Data preprocessing*||See |
|Data labeling*||Test items contain gold-standard coreference data by design.|
|Annotator characteristics||Test item compilation: 1 native speaker of Swedish with PhD in computational linguistics, 1 near-native speaker of Swedish with PhD in (corpus) inguistics.|
|IV. ETHICS AND CAVEATS|
|Ethical considerations||The auxiliary data contains information about the distribution between women and men across occupations, and therefore contains data about subpopulations. The data does not contain reference to individuals – neither directly nor indirectly.|
|Things to watch out for||This is meant as a diagnostic, not as a target for training.
The diagnostic only concerns occupation and gender, and this is only one of the many ways gender bias may be present in a coreference resolution model. In the words of : “[a]s a diagnostic test of gender bias, we view the schemas as having high positive predictive value and low negative predictive value; that is, they may demonstrate the presence of gender bias in a system, but not prove its absence.”
Although the test items contain a threeway distinction in the pronouns used (han [masc], hon [fem], hen [neutral], the auxiliary data is restricted to a binary gender perspective. For task (3) above, it may however be interesting to compare system predictions for the gender-neutral pronoun (“hen”) items with the auxiliary statistics to better understand how a system handles resolution if this pronoun.
|V. ABOUT DOCUMENTATION|
|Data last updated*||20210614 v1.0|
|Which changes have been made, compared to the previous version*||First data release|
|Access to previous versions||First data release|
|This document created*||20210614; Gerlof Bouma (firstname.lastname@example.org)|
|This document last updated*||20210614; Gerlof Bouma (email@example.com)|
|Where to look for further details||-|
|Documentation template version*||v1.0|
|References|| Hansson, Mavromatakis, Adesam, Bouma and Dannélls (2021): The Swedish Winogender Dataset. In Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), pp452–459. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/178/052/ecp2021178052.pdf
 Rudinger, Naradowsky, Leonard and Van Durme (2018): Gender bias in coreference resolution. In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers), pp8–14. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/N18-2002
 Wang, Pruksachatkun, Nangia, Singh, Michael, Hill, Levy and Bowman (2019): SuperGLUE: A Stickier Benchmark for General-Purpose Language Understanding Systems. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32. https://papers.nips.cc/paper/2019/file/4496bf24afe7fab6f046bf4923da8de6-Paper.pdf
 Rødven Eide, Tahmasebi and Borin (2016): The Swedish Culturomics Gigaword corpus: A one billion word Swedish reference dataset for NLP. In Digital Humanities 2016. From Digitization to Knowledge: Resources and Methods for Semantic Processing of Digital Works/Texts, pp8–12. https://ep.liu.se/ecp/126/002/ecp16126002.pdf