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SALDO (Swedish Associative Thesaurus version 2) is an extensive lexicon resource for modern Swedish written language.


Lars Borin, Markus Forsberg, and Lennart Lönngren

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SALDO (Swedish Associative Thesaurus version 2) is an extensive electronic lexicon resource for modern Swedish written language. It is created for the purpose of language technology research and for the development of language technology applications. Thus, it deviates from what you expect to find in a traditional lexicon for human use. It is not a normative lexicon, but is rather meant to be maximally descriptive. Additionally, it is distributed in a form which is intended for use as a component in a computer program. SALDO builds on Swedish Associative Thesaurus (SAL), a semantic lexicon for Swedish. SALDO may be viewed as a basic lexical resource for a Swedish BLARK (Basic LAnguage Resource Kit).

SALDO currently consists of i) semantic lexicon, which is a kind of lexical-semantic network, ii) a morphological lexicon, which contains full information about the part of speech and inflectional pattern of each entry, and iii) a computational morphological description, defined with the tool Functional Morphology (FM). All components are released under a Creative Commons Attribute-Share Alike license. SALDO may be downloaded as both the released versions and a development version. It is also distributed through four web services: an incremental fullform lookup service, an inflection engine service, a compound analysis service, and an experimental semantic visualizer. The web services are updated daily with the latest development version of SALDO.

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SALDO is distributed under the licenses
Creative Commons BY



Lars Borin, Markus Forsberg, Lennart Lönngren (2013): SALDO: a touch of yin to WordNet's yang, in Language resources and evaluation, volume 47, issue 4, pages 1191-1211 BibTeX


Lars Borin, Markus Forsberg (2009): All in the family: A comparison of SALDO and WordNet, in Proceedings of the Nodalida 2009 Workshop on WordNets and other Lexical Semantic Resources - between Lexical Semantics, Lexicography, Terminology and Formal Ontologies. NEALT Proceedings Series, volume 7 BibTeX


Lars Borin, Markus Forsberg, Lennart Lönngren (2008): The hunting of the BLARK - SALDO, a freely available lexical database for Swedish language technology, in Resourceful language technology. Festschrift in honor of Anna Sågvall Hein, pages 21-32 BibTeX

L. Borin, M. Forsberg, L. Lönngren. SALDO 1.0 (Svenskt associationslexikon version 2). Språkbanken, University of Gothenburg, 2008-05-07
Download: saldo_1.0.pdf


Lars Borin (2005): Mannen är faderns mormor: Svenskt associationslexikon reinkarnerat, in LexicoNordica, volume 12, pages 39-54 BibTeX


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